Not exactly. English spelling was far from standardized at that time. As a result of the fact that the English-speaking world was already politically fragmented, when it finally BECAME standardized, there were conflicting standards. For various reasons, North Americans, like Noah Webster, chose phonetic rules over etymological ones, while Englishmen, like those at Oxford, preferred etymology as the principal criterion.
Similar reasons are behind the fact that Americans have retained definitions and spellings for words that are no longer used in Britain.
That said, although an American, I happen to prefer the OED spellings myself, and use "colour" and "centre" by choice (which isn't too hard to get away with, being near Canada).