>What is the percentage of anime work outsourced to overseas studios in China and Korea?
>Traditionally, animation has always been outsourced to smaller Japanese companies, but foreign companies are increasingly competing for jobs. My observation tells me that on average more than 50% of inbetweening and coloring is outsourced, followed by 30% outsourcing of background, and 20% (and increasing) outsourcing of key animation. Some studios outsource far more than others. For example, Madhouse and GONZO outsource much of the lower animation work to Korean firms like DR Movie, Kyung Kang ANIA, Seung Bo Yeang Hang and Chinese firms like RIC, Feng Huang Dong Hua (Phoenix Animation), etc. In fact, some episodes are totally done in Korea, like Tenjou Tenge, some episodes of Death Note, and Saiunkoku Monogatari (all from Madhouse) where even the animation supervisor (sakuga kantoku) is Korean as well. Toei has outsourced virtually all of its in-betweening, coloring and background to Toei Animation Phillipines(TAP, aka EEI-Toei) and now TAP has 6-8 key animators too. Other firms outsource moderately (but increasingly) like Pierrot, Studio Deen, and JC Staff. Firms that do not outsource very much tend to be doing high-budget shows, e.g. Production I.G. and Kyoto Animation. As these places become increasingly expensive, production may be outsourced to other countries such as Indonesia (BJCF - Bintang Jenaka Cartoon Films which did part of Lost Universe, Cowboy Bebop movie, and Prince of Tennis) and Vietnam, where backgrounds for Negima? and Reideen (2007) have been made.