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In the figure above, one main criterion node, Time, connects directly to the alternatives. The other criteria connect to subcriteria that then connect to the alternatives. The lowest level of criteria that connect to the alternatives are called the “covering criteria”. Here the covering criteria are the main criterion Time plus the subcriteria: Amusements, Oceans, History, Hotels, Restaurants, Travel Cost, Accommodations. The pairwise comparisons are done in the usual way for this model. It can also be done as a Ratings model by selecting the bottom level or “covering criteria” as the criteria in Ratings.
In a complete hierarchical model, all the nodes in a level connect to all the nodes in the next lower level. The model shown in Figure 8 below has a “complete hierarchy” structure except for the next to last level between “Groups Affected” and “Objectives”. The Farmers were interested only in Irrigation and Flood Control on the next level, the Recreationists only in Flat Dam (dam full of water) and White Dam (low water level in dam), the Power Users only in power and the Environmentalists only in the Environment. The clusters in the ANP model shown in Figure 9 correspond to the levels in hierarchic drawing in Figure 8.