Rasterizer not ray-tracer.
Very little texture usage, most stuff is just material changes or procedural, because they had such limited memory back then.
Phong material (invented in 1973, the primary material used before the late 90s.). Though there's a chance a studio may have written their own tweaked shaders models as well.
Lots of outdated traditional post-processing affects that were sometimes carried out on the physical film itself.